Phosphorylated Protein Research

Phosphorylated Protein Research

Protein phosphorylation is recognized as the fundemental process which regulates cell differentiation, growth, and migration.

Detecting phosphopeptides in proteins by MS is not easy because the amount of phosphopeptides are very low and the ionization efficiency is also low. Therefore it is important to enrich phosphopeptides as much as possible prior to LC/MS.


GL Sciences’ Titanium Dioxide (TiO2 or Titania) products were developed to offer the most effective phosphopeptide enrichment of digested protein prior to LC/MS analysis. This replaces IMAC which used to be the primary means of phosphopeptide sample pretreatment.  As a complimentary technique, titanium dioxide and IMAC often used in combination to obtain optimal phosphopeptide analysis.


What Makes GL Sciences’ Titanium Dioxide Products Unique and Superior?

Titanium Dioxide exists in three crystaline forms, known as Rutile, Anatase, and Brookite. Rutile and Anatase are the most common and most useful for phosphopeptide enrichment. The ratio of Rutile to Anatase is important for effective enrichment of phosphopeptides. GL Sciences produces highly spherical beads with the optimum ratio of crystal forms of TiO2.

GL Sciences’ Phos-Tio and MonoTip products show superior performance by using those unique titanium dioxide beads,

Basics of Phophopeptide Analyses by MS

Basics-Phosphopeptide Analyses by MS


Principal of Phosphopeptide Enrichment using GL Sciences’ Phos-TiO Sample Enrichment Products

Principle-Phosphorylated Protein Research

Phosphate groups are preferentially adsorbed to the surface of titanium dioxide under acidic conditions and are eluted under basic condition. Non-phosphorylated acid peptides non-specifically bound to the TiO2 can be reduced by adding acid modifiers to the loading and/or wash buffers.