Pharmaceuticals analysis is performed in a variety of biological samples. Examples include clinical trials in drug development and therapeutic drug level management (TDM).
Solid-phase extraction has been commonly used as a sample pretreatment, but in recent years, improved sensitivity of analytical instruments has led to the use of solid-phase extraction and deproteinization of trace samples.
Progress in functional analysis of proteins has led to the identification of proteins that cause disease.
Research is underway to use the protein as a disease marker for diagnostic.
Like clinical proteomics, endogenous low-molecular-weight compounds (metabolites) in living organisms have been used as disease markers. In such studies, a variety of techniques (GC/MS, LC/MS, CE/MS, SFC/MS) have been used because of the diversity of molecules involved.